Menya byinshi ku mateka y’uburezi kuva iremwa ry’isi (igice cya 3)

Mu gihe cy’iterambere, ni ukuvuga guhera mu kinyejana cya cumi na gatanu, ni bwo, bitewe n’itangira ry’ibijyanye ry’ikoranabuhanga rya imprimelie, ndeste n’impaka zagibwaga hagati y’abayobozi ba Kiliziya n’abaharaniraga amavugurura muri Kiliziya (reforme), hatangiye uburyo bw’uburezi kuri bose, hatitawe ku ivangura mu mashuri. Guhera ubwo, ni bwo hatangiye amashuri ya collèges.

Kugira ngo umunyeshuri ave mu mwaka yimukire mu wundi, yagombaga gukora ikizamini cyabaga cyateguwe n’ishuri. Aho kandi niho umunyeshuri yagombaga guhabwa isomo, na nyuma umwarimu agakurikirana umunyeshuri, kugirango harebwe niba ibyo yigishijwe yarabifashe mu mutwe. Ikindi kandi ni uko abanyeshuri bagombaga kujya bashyirwa muri buri mwaka w’ishuri hakurikijwe ikigero cy’imyaka ye y’amavuko, ku buryo abayeshuri biga hamwe, bagombaga kuba bafite imyaka y’amavuko ingana, akaba ari na bwo noneho umunyeshuri yagombaga kuba atandukanye n’umwarimu.

Muri icyo gihe abana bo mu miryango ikomeye ni bo babanje gushyirwa mu myanya maze abandi bagenda bajyayo buhoro buhoro mu myaka yakurikiyeho. Umwanditsi w’amateka Ariés abona ubwo buryo bushya nka kimwe mu kintu gishya cyagize akamaro gakomeye mu bijyanye no guteza imbere umuco w’umwana no kumurengera. Kuri we, mbere y’uko umwana yaba akomoka ku miryango ikize cyangwa se ikennye, aba ari umwana w’igihugu.

Icyaje kandi kugaragara ni uko abarezi ba Kiliziya bahise bafata inshingano zo kurengera abana bose ; bitandukanye n’uko byari bemeze mbere, aho harebwaga gusa inyungu z’abana bo mu miryango ikomeye. Mu gihe cyiswe Renaissance, abihayimana bo mu muryango w’Abayezuwiti bagize uruhare rukomeye mu kwigisha mu mashuri ya za Kaminuza ariko cyane cyane mu mashuri yisumbuye (collèges).

Ishuri rya mbere ryisumbuye (collège) ryashinzwe n’Abayezuwiti ni collège yitiriwe Ignace wa Loyola mu mwaka w’1548 ahitwa i Messine mu Bufaransa. Mu gihugu cy’ubufaransa kandi, Abayezuwiti bashinze amashuri menshi i Riyon, i Paris(Collège de Clemont, kuri ubu Lycée Louis-le-Grand), i Flèche, n’ahandi.

Ayo macollège akaba yaranyuzwemo n’umubare munini w’abantu bakomeye b’icyo gihe ; hafi ya bose bakaba bari abigitsina gabo. Mu gihugu cy’u Bufaransa kandi, ku butegetsi bw’umwami François I, uwitwa Guillaume Budé yashinze ishuri mu mwaka w’1530 rya Collège Royal, kuri ubu rikaba ryitwa Collège de France.

Ni uguhera mu kinyejana cya cumi n’umunani, imyumvire y’amashuri yahindutse, maze hashyirwaho uburyo umwana agomba kwigishwa kureba kure no guharanira kuba umuntu wa nyawe, uharanira ejo hazaza he.

Mu bushakashatsi bw’umwanditsi w’amateka witwa Emile de Jean Jacques Rousseau yanenze cyane imyigishirize y’amacollèges, ariko yemeza ko yagiriye akamaro abana batari bake b’icyo gihe. Icyatumye ayanenga cyane; ni uko aya macollège atigeze aha abana b’abakobwa amahirwe yo kwiga, kimwe na basaza babo, kandi nyamara byari kuzabafasha mu kunganira basaza babo.

Ni muri ayo macollèges kandi noneho higishijwe amasomo y’ubumenyi rusange n’ubukirisitu. Ikindi kandi ni uko uburyo bwigishwaga, mu mashuri y’igishaga urukundo (Ecoles de charité); hagenderwaga ku nteganyanyigisho zabaga zarakozwe n’ayo macollèges.

Abana b’abakobwa bashoboye kugera ku bumenyi, babigezeho mu kinyejana cya cumi n’umunani, biyigishije, hanze ya za kaminuza, ahanini bakibanda ku masomo y’imibare ari nayo yari afite akamaro gakomeye. Guhera ubwo batangira gukwirakwiza ibitekerezo byabo, kandi bishya. Bamwe muri bo,nka Emile Châtelet wari warasomye ibitekerezo bya Darwin mu Bufaransa; bakoze ubushakashatsi bukomeye, ariko ntiyigeze abasha kubona impamyabumenyi. ibi bikaba byaratumye atabasha no kuba hari akazi yakora nk’abandi bose bize Kaminuza  kandi nyamara yari afite ubumenyi.

Nibwo rero uburyo bwo kwigisha, bwaje mu binyejana byakurikiyeho byashyizeho uburyo bwo kwiga; butari bushingiye ku myemerere y’amadini, aribyo Laïcité mu ndimi z’amahanga.

Igihe turimo (Epoque contemporaine), gitangirana n’ikiswe ikinyenyejana cy’urumuri, cyamurikiye ubwenge bwa muntu aribyo «Siècle de lumière». Kikaba cyararanzwe n’itsinda ry’abahanga mu gutekereza binyuze mu nyandiko zitandukanye. Bikaba byaratangiye hagati y’umwaka w’1715-1789, hatagendewe ku myemerere, birenze ibyari bisanzwe byigishwa. Aha ni ho abahanga muri Filozofiya no mu bundi bumenyi busanzwe bahagurukiye kumenya ubumenyi burenze ubwari buriho, hatangendewe ku murongo wari warashyizweho n’ubuyobozi bwa Kiliziya na za Leta z’icyo gihe.

Ijambo «Lumière» ryafatiweho urugero kugira ngo rihurize hamwe ibitekerezo by’abahanga bose bababanjirije hagamijwe gusesengura birushijeho ubumenyi bwabo, ugererenyije n’uko byari bisanzwe. Iri jambo Lumière kandi ryatoranyijwe kugira ngo ryerekane itandukaniro n’ubuhanga bw’abatangije iyo mouvement muri icyo gihe, ari bo Montesquieu, Diderot, Voltaire, Rousseau n’abandi. Impinduramatwara mu by’ubwenge yo mu 1688 ifatwa nk’imbarutso ya siècle de Lumière.

Ikindi kandi ni uko mu kwiga amateka y’Ubufaransa, igihe kiri hagati y’iyo mpinduramatwara mu by’ubwenge n’impinduramatwara y’Ubufaransa yakuyeho ubutegetsi bwa Louis XIV, hagati ya 1643-1715 ni cyo gifatwa nk’imbarutso ya Siècle de lumière. Abanyamateka bamwe bashyira iyi Siècle de lumière hagati ya 1670-1820. Ikindi ni uko imyigishirize y’amateka, guhera mu mwaka w’1970, yateje imbere imyigire iboneye kandi ihurijwe hamwe. Aha niho hashyizweho ishami ry’umuryango w’abibumbye ryita ku bumenyi n’umuco «UNESCO». Ibi bikaba bituma hakorwa integanyanyigisho ngenderwaho mu bijyanye no kwigisha mu mashuri ku buryo mpuzamahanga. Herekanwa ibigomba kwigishwa mu mashuri yose agaragara mu bihugu byose byo ku isi. Iyo nyigo ikaba ari na yo iyobora imyigishirize ya buri gihugu.

Muri Afurika, amateka y’uburezi mu mashuri atangirana n’inkubiri y’umwaduko w’abazungu ku mugabane wa Afurika. Abanyaburayi bakaba barateruye uburyo bwo kwigisha uko byakorwaga i Burayi babuzana muri Afurika nta cyo bahinduyeho. Ubwo buryo akaba ari na bwo bukigenderwaho na n’ubu mu bihugu byinshi bya Afurika.

Sibo Sylvain    

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